Wednesday, April 16, 2014

Hemicraniectomy for malignant middle cerebral artery infarction: Current status and future directions

Hemicraniectomy for malignant middle cerebral artery infarction: Current status and future directions


  • decompressive surgery;
  • hemicraniectomy;
  • malignant;
  • middle cerebral artery infarction;
  • space-occupying
Malignant middle cerebral artery infarction is a life-threatening sub-type of ischemic stroke that may only be survived at the expense of permanent disability. Decompressive hemicraniectomy is an effective surgical therapy to reduce mortality and improve functional outcome without promoting most severe disability. Evidence derives from three European randomized controlled trials in patients up to 60 years. The recently finished DEcompressive Surgery for the Treatment of malignant INfarction of the middle cerebral arterY – II trial gives now high-level evidence for the effectiveness of decompressive hemicraniectomy in patients older than 60 years. Nevertheless, pressing issues persist that need to be answered in future clinical trials, e.g. the acceptable degree of disability in survivors of malignant middle cerebral artery infarction, the importance of aphasia, and the best timing for decompressive hemicraniectomy. This review provides an overview of the current diagnosis and treatment of malignant middle cerebral artery infarction with a focus on decompressive hemicraniectomy and outlines future perspectives.

Prevalence of stroke and coexistent conditions: disparities between indigenous and nonindigenous Western Australians


  • Australia;
  • comorbidity;
  • epidemiology;
  • indigenous;
  • linked data;
  • prevalence;
  • stroke


Worldwide, the prevalence of stroke is poorly described in indigenous populations, despite high stroke burden. This paper reports the average point prevalence of hospitalized stroke and coexistent conditions (2007–2011) in indigenous and nonindigenous people in Western Australia, the largest and most sparsely populated Australian jurisdiction.


Using state-wide linked hospital and mortality data, indigenous and nonindigenous prevalent stroke cases (aged 25–84 years) were identified after reviewing stroke admissions over a fixed 20-year look-back period. Prevalent cases were those alive at midyear of each study year. The 2007–2011 period prevalence was a weighted average of annual prevalence. Histories of 11 comorbidities were identified using the 20-year look-back period.


Indigenous cases comprised 5% of the average 13 591 annual prevalent cases. Indigenous patients were more likely to be younger, female, and have unknown stroke type. Indigenous prevalence was higher at every age. The age-standardized prevalence in indigenous men (33·7 per 1000; 95% confidence interval 31·9–35·4) was 3.7 times greater than in nonindigenous men (9·1 per 1000; 95% confidence interval 9·0–9·2). The corresponding estimates for women were 27·1 per 1000 (25·7–28·4) and 6·1 per 1000 (6·0–6·2) (ratio = 4·4). The percentage with selected comorbid conditions was substantially higher for indigenous patients.


The high stroke prevalence in indigenous Western Australians, coupled with clinical complexity from comorbid conditions, requires access to culturally appropriate medical, rehabilitation, and logistical support. Intensified primary and secondary prevention is needed to reduce the impact of stroke on indigenous people.

Tuesday, April 1, 2014

Uploading slides from IJS for your own talks!

Did you know that you can upload slides to use in the enhanced html section of the Wiley online library?
Here's a screen shot to show you how easy it is!

Statistical analysis plan for the ‘Efficacy of Nitric Oxide in Stroke’ (ENOS) trial

Statistical analysis plan for the ‘Efficacy of Nitric Oxide in Stroke’ (ENOS) trial

High blood pressure is common during the acute phase of stroke and is associated with a poor outcome. However, the management of high blood pressure remains unclear. The ‘Efficacy of Nitric Oxide in Stroke’ trial tested whether transdermal glyceryl trinitrate, a nitric oxide donor that lowers blood pressure, is safe and effective in improving outcome after acute stroke. Efficacy of Nitric Oxide in Stroke is an international multicenter, prospective, randomized, single-blind, blinded endpoint trial, with funding from the UK Medical Research Council. Patients with acute ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage and systolic blood pressure 140–220 mmHg were randomized to glyceryl trinitrate or no glyceryl trinitrate and, where relevant, to continue or stop prestroke antihypertensive therapy. The primary outcome is shift in modified Rankin Scale at three-months. Patients or relatives gave written informed (proxy) consent, and all sites had research ethics approval. Analyses will be done by intention to treat. This paper and attachment describe the trial's statistical analysis plan, developed prior to unblinding of date. The statistical analysis plan contains design and methods for analyses, and unpopulated tables and figures for the two primary publications and some secondary publications. The database will be locked in late February 2014 in preparation for presentation of the results in May 2014. The data from the trial will improve the precision of the estimates of the overall treatment effects (efficacy and safety) of results from completed trials of blood pressure management in acute stroke, and provide the first large-scale randomized evidence on transdermal glyceryl trinitrate, and of continuing (vs. stopping) prestroke antihypertensive medications, in acute stroke.

  • Keywords: acute stroke trial;
  • blood pressure;
  • glyceryl trinitrate;
  • intracerebral hemorrhage;
  • ischemic stroke;
  • statistical analysis plan

  • ENOS

    1. Philip M. W. Bath, 
    2. Aimee Houlton, 
    3. Lisa Woodhouse, 
    4. Nikola Sprigg, 
    5. Joanna Wardlaw,
    6. Stuart Pocock and
    7. on behalf of the ENOS Trialists

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